This paper presents a review about neurosurgery, robotic assistants in this type of procedure, and the approach to the problem of brain tissue displacement, including techniques for obtaining medical images. It is especially focused on the phenomenon of brain displacement, commonly known as brain shift, which causes a loss of reference between the preoperative images and the volumes to be treated during image-guided surgery. Hypothetically, with brain shift prediction and correction for the neuronavigation system, minimal invasion trajectories could be planned and shortened. This would reduce damage to functional tissues and possibly lower the morbidity and mortality in delicate and demanding medical procedures such as the removal of a brain tumor. This paper also mentions other issues associated with neurosurgery and shows the way robotized systems have helped solve these problems. Finally, it highlights the future perspectives of neurosurgery, a branch of medicine that seeks to treat the ailments of the main organ of the human body from the perspective of many disciplines.
Neurosurgery; brain shift; medical robotics; neuronavigation; minimally invasive surgery.